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So you are taking data already tagged in XML and inserting
more markup into it, as in adding HTML tags to text nodes?
1) You are right that markup systems are silent about
these semantics. They are in the domain of the
application language. However, in this case, a bold italic
item and an italic bold item are rendered identically, yes,
and rendering is the semantic yes, so why are these not
equivalent semantically if not syntactically?
What do you mean by 'similar classes of constructs'?
2) An XSLT script could be used to transform this
From: Stuart A Yeates
I have written a natural language modelling tool which marks up (inserts
XML tags into) natural language documents already in XML.
I have come across an issue with this tool: some users and documents
have an expectation that <i><b></b></i> and <b><i></i></b> (and similar
classes of constructs) are equivalent, whereas my tool sees these are
From looking at at the standards, is appears that HTML, XHTML and XML
are all silent on the semantics of situations such as this.
Are there any systems or toolkits which have already been written to
help systematise documents and corpora into a single, consistent
Stuart Yeates email@example.com
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