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smorgasbord of simple questions (well, three)

If I may, I'd like to pose three, I think, fairly simply but unrelated

1.)  if an undeclared namespace is utilized, is that document still
well-formed? valid?  I think it would be still be well formed because
the tags and nodes still match, but invalid because...not sure on

from wikipedia:

A markup construct consisting of a name/value pair that exists within
a start-tag or empty-element tag. In the example (below) the element
img has two attributes, src and alt: <img src="madonna.jpg"
alt='Foligno Madonna, by Raphael'/>. Another example would be <step
number="3">Connect A to B.</step> where the name of the attribute is
"number" and the value is "3".

what is the string “connect A to B”, if not a value of the attribute?
All this is happening within the step node?

3.) how do you know whether the UTF-8 (or whatever) encoding is
correct?  I'm thinking of:

"What if you have a document that has an encoding declared but is
really stored in another encoding? Such is the case with the file
oops.xml, which looks identical to time.xml but is stored as UTF-16
even though the encoding declaration says UTF-8."


I never really thought about whether my files were in any particular
format.  How do you ensure this on a regular basis?  using HTML tidy
on every file seems a bit absurd.



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